News Articles

Got Milk? (What a Year!)

Molecules in mother’s milk could fight travellers’ diarrhea, C. difficile, scientists say (National Post)

  1. Newburg, D. S., Ruiz-Palacios, G. M., & Morrow, A. L. (2005). Human milk glycans protect infants against enteric pathogens. Annual Review of Nutrition, 25, 37-58.
  2. Kunz, C. & Rudloff, S. (2008). Potential anti-inflammatory and anti-infectious effects of human milk oligosaccharides. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 606, 455-65.
  3. Newburg, D. S. (2009). Neonatal protection by an innate immune system of human milk consisting of oligosaccharides and glycans. Journal of Animal Science, 87(13 Suppl), 26-34.
  4. Morrow, A., et al. 2011. ¨Fucosyltransferase 2 Non-Secretor and Low Secretor Status Predicts Severe Outcomes in Premature Infants.¨ Journal of Pediatrics, 158: 745-751.
  5. Bode, L. (2012). Human milk oligosaccharides: Every baby needs a sugar mama. Glycobiology, 22(9), 1147-62.
  6. Castanys-Muñoz, E., Martin, M. J., & Prieto, P. A. (2013). 2'-fucosyllactose: An abundant, genetically determined soluble glycan present in human milk. Nutrition Reviews, 71(12), 773-89.
  7. Gura, T. (2014). Nature's first functional food. Science, 345(6198), 747-749.
  8. Kunz, C., Kuntz, S., & Rudloff, S. (2014). Bioactivity of human milk oligosaccharides. Food Oligosaccharides: Production, Analysis and Bioactivity, 1-20.
  9. Newburg, D. S. & Morelli, L. (2014). Human milk and infant intestinal mucosal glycans guide succession of the neonatal intestinal microbiota. Pediatric Research.
  10. Newburg, D. S. & Grave, G. (2014). Recent advances in human milk glycobiology. Pediatric Research.

For More Information:


Diarrheal Diseases
  1. World Health Organization.
  2. National Institutes of Health

Human Breastmilk
  1. American Pregnancy Association
  2. Mother´s Milk Bank of New England